Learning Difficulties - LD
Learning Difficulties are a group of disorders that impact the neurological processes behind learning. These processes are compromised in a child with a learning difficulty manifesting itself in the inability to process information correctly. Executive Functions are the group of skills that are most affected in Learning Difficulties; these are the groups of skills that allow us to learn in a significant way, they include skills relating to memory, attention, work rhythms, organizational skills, mental and motor planning and the selection of stimulants, amongst others.
The diagnoses that make up the group of Learning Difficulties do not directly impact a child’s potential or their level of intelligence.
The most common diagnoses of learning difficulties include:
Dyslexia is a neurologically based problem resulting in difficulties in the acquisition and processing of language. The level of severity varies amongst children but areas compromised include: receptive and expressive language, including phonological processing while reading, writing, and spelling words, as well as difficulties with letter formation and at times difficulties with mathematics.
Dyscalculia is a problem often related to Dyslexia. It presents itself as a difficulty to acquire mathematical concepts including the manipulation of quantities as well as the abstraction of numerical information.
Dysgraphia is also related to Dyslexia and it is the difficulty to translate thought into writing, which must not be related to a neurological, sensory, or motor complication. The dysgraphia must also be present even though the student is demonstrating sufficient motivation to complete the written task.
A language delay is characterized by the difficulty to acquire or use language in a functional way. Language delays can vary in their severity and can be divided into problems to articulate or speak, and problems to communicate or understand.
Functional visual disorders
A functional visual disorder is identified when a child is unable to process visual information accurately. Sight and vision are different. Sight involves how well a child can see and vision relates to how well the child process the information he is seeing. Many children with learning difficulties may have visual processing disorders, which result in problems with letter formation, copying from the board, motor coordination, distraction and levels of concentration.